Industry Resources

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MacAlert February 2023

2023 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include : • Spotting bug. Late season damage is only fully revealed in consignment reports. Damage is worse in thin-shelled cultivars and following rain. • Macadamia Nut borer (MNB). Like many pests, MNB is triggered with warm, wet weather. Damage appears as 2-3 mm holes at the top of shells. • Botryosphaeria branch dieback. We’ve been hearing more about this disease because it is causing increasing damage in many tree species. Infection symptoms are obvious in summer. • If the orchard has experienced prolonged summer rain and/or a heavy crop, you may need to adjust your nutrition program. • Finish pre-harvest clean-up ensuring minimal old nut, sticks and debris remain on the orchard floor. • Download the AMS Harvest Checklist and Grower Harvest Tips. • Are you concerned about how to prioritise inputs and adjust operations for the season ahead? RSVP for the AMS MacGroup events.

MacAlert January 2023

2023 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Spotting Bugs. Although shells have hardened, damage is still possible and will be worse after rain. • Leptocoris. More Leptocoris have been found in orchards. We don’t know if this is due to population surges or better late season (knockdown) monitoring. • Macadamia Nut Borer. MaxTrix wasp releases should continue into January. This is particularly important if you have thin shelled cultivars. • Is it Husk spot or Husk rot? They need to be dealt with differently. • Water requirements are now at their maximum, but most regions have ample water in the soil profile. • Have a plan in place to deal with storm damage to the orchard and infrastructure. • Start preparing for preharvest clean-up. Orchard floor fanatics make more money. • This won’t be a “usual” season with regard to nut deliveries. Ensure you have plans in place and adequate storage options.

MacAlert December 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Macadamia Nut Borer (MNB), keep monitoring for MNB eggs. It is critical in December to release MacTrix and understand its' limitations. • Spotting bugs, keep monitoring by examining fallen nuts for evidence of damage and then swapping to in tree monitoring. • If you have trees younger than four years that may not be bearing, remember they can be affected by pests that will hamper growth. • There is nutritional demand to support both spring flush and developing nuts. • Storm season is here again, and you will need to be prepared to deal with any orchard damage. • Benchmarking data collection is underway for the 2022 season. • Start a conversation with your processor. With global and potential domestic oversupply, many things will be different to what is “usual”.

MacAlert - November 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

• With the current conditions, monitoring for spotting bug will be critical. Look for damage at least weekly and later you will need to drop sheet to understand blind damage. • Monitor for macadamia nut borer (MNB) eggs signalling the start of flights into the orchards, to help time releases of MacTrix. • Check shed nuts on the ground for macadamia seed weevil (MSW) eggs or larvae. • Leaf miner will likely be driving you crazy! We have had a season like no other for this usually minor pest. • With later flowering and very wet season, a later than usual husk spot control program may be required. • Nutritional demand is increasing to support both a new flush and developing nuts. • Orchards don’t need to look like golf courses! There are huge benefits to letting the orchard go. • The potential for damage from hail, wind, excessive rain or flooding from intense storms is increasing and will remain through summer, so be prepared. • The new ‘Macadamia Industry Benchmarking & Sustainability Insights 2022-2027’ project has started and data collection for the 2022 season is underway, but they need you to complete the collection form.

MacAlert - October 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

• If your orchard has a history of husk spot and/or susceptible cultivars, you need to be ready to apply fungicide as nutlets reach match-head size. • Macadamia seed weevil (MSW). As weevils try lays their eggs between the husk and developing nut, there is a critical period to protect. • Spotting bug, early in the season look for damage on nutlets as they reach pea size. • Banana fruit caterpillar (BFC). In northern regions, monitor for BFC in leaf litter. • If you are unsure of how trees are progressing nutritionally, spring is a good time to sample leaves after flowering before the new flush. • Current demand for potassium and calcium is high from developing nutlets. • October/November are generally the last months you can apply animal manures and uncomposted material. • Keep up monitoring and sprayer maintenance over the next few months. • The forecasted wet period ahead is an opportunity to seed/plant areas of your farm that need improved groundcover.

MacAlert - September 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key topics this month include: • Monitor weekly to fortnightly for pest and diseases that affect flowers. • Best practice during flowering is to bring managed pollinators into the orchard to assist naturally occurring pollinators and hives that remain year-round. • During spring, biological processes and input demands will increase. • All preparations for spraying should now be complete and your equipment calibrated and ready to go. • You are likely to be doing some sort of canopy management over the next few months. Remember to be safe.

MacAlert - August 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key Topics this month include: • Start monitoring for pest and diseases that impact flowers. • If you haven’t already done so, book a pest consultant to regularly monitor your orchard. • As weather warms tree nutrition and water requirements will increase, particularly as flowers have started to emerge so early in the season. • At the end of harvest season, which for many is still far away, conduct a thorough audit of what needs to be repaired. • Once you have finished harvesting review your season with your consultant/GLO and decide on post harvest orchard floor repair and canopy management. • Prepare for the start of a new crop protection season. • Have an agreement with your beekeeper if you’re bringing managed pollinators into the orchard.

Growers guide: Supporting Stingless Bees for pollination of macadamia

2022 | Wilson R, Wallace H | Manual/guide

Stingless bees are excellent pollinators of macadamia and will forage heavily on macadamia when it is in flower. However stingless bee hives that are left on-farm year round may starve if they do not have access to other food sources when macadamia is not flowering. This guide identifies pollen food sources for stingless bees year-round. We identified major plant sources in the pollen pots of 57 Tetragonula carbonaria colonies over 2 years in orchards and forests in southeast Queensland.

MacAlert - July 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

• From now until the end of the year, focus shifts to crop production and protection underpinned by monitoring – which is not just looking for pests or disease but assessing biotic and abiotic orchard factors. • Thoroughly clean shed equipment at the end of harvest and remove any residual nuts that may attract vermin and harbour pests such as kernel grub. • Audit your chemical store and ensure you and all staff have current chemical application certification – additional licenses are required in NSW if you are contracting spray services, even for a neighbour. • Prepare for crop protection activities ensuring correct sprayer/tractor calibration as well as nozzle/cannon selections – conduct coverage and tractor speed tests • If you are planning canopy management, do you know what you will do with prunings? • Now may be your last chance to order organic inputs for application post-harvest. • A post-harvest schedule will help you prioritise orchard operations and booking contractors as you finish this season and prepare for the next. • Professional beekeepers will be looking to place hives on orchards – ensure hives have not been moved from or within a biosecurity zone (currently all of NSW).

MacAlert - June 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key topics this month include: • Disaster relief grant applications have been extended in QLD • Factoring in weather conditions for your pest and disease management plans • Nutrition plans need to remain flexible, consider crop load and weather events - discuss soil/leaf sampling results with your consultant to plan nutrition adjustments prior to flowering • Harvesting in wet conditions – key considerations and adaptations including processor sampling for quality of nut that has been lying on the orchard floor • Post-harvest storage – mitigating germination, mould and brown centres with effective airflow and timeous operations • Check now that you and your staff have valid chemical application certification • Book your pest consultant for July to monitor for lace bug, flower caterpillar and flower diseases

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