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MacAlert - January 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Spotting bugs. Although shells have hardened, damage is still possible and will be worse after rain. • Leptocoris. More Leptocoris have been found in orchards over the last few weeks. • Macadamia nut borer. MacTrix wasp releases should continue into January if you are in NSW or Sth East QLD • Husk spot and husk rot. January is a good time to assess the extent of loss. • The wet season has arrived. Have a plan in place to deal with storm damage to the orchard and infrastructure. • Start preparing for pre-harvest clean-up. Orchard floor fanatics make more money. • Ausmac2022 is just around the corner, register now.

Growers guide: Supporting Stingless Bees for pollination of macadamia

2022 | Wilson R, Wallace H | Manual/guide

Stingless bees are excellent pollinators of macadamia and will forage heavily on macadamia when it is in flower. However stingless bee hives that are left on-farm year round may starve if they do not have access to other food sources when macadamia is not flowering. This guide identifies pollen food sources for stingless bees year-round. We identified major plant sources in the pollen pots of 57 Tetragonula carbonaria colonies over 2 years in orchards and forests in southeast Queensland.

MacAlert - September 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key topics this month include: • Monitor weekly to fortnightly for pest and diseases that affect flowers. • Best practice during flowering is to bring managed pollinators into the orchard to assist naturally occurring pollinators and hives that remain year-round. • During spring, biological processes and input demands will increase. • All preparations for spraying should now be complete and your equipment calibrated and ready to go. • You are likely to be doing some sort of canopy management over the next few months. Remember to be safe.

MacAlert - August 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key Topics this month include: • Start monitoring for pest and diseases that impact flowers. • If you haven’t already done so, book a pest consultant to regularly monitor your orchard. • As weather warms tree nutrition and water requirements will increase, particularly as flowers have started to emerge so early in the season. • At the end of harvest season, which for many is still far away, conduct a thorough audit of what needs to be repaired. • Once you have finished harvesting review your season with your consultant/GLO and decide on post harvest orchard floor repair and canopy management. • Prepare for the start of a new crop protection season. • Have an agreement with your beekeeper if you’re bringing managed pollinators into the orchard.

MacAlert - July 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

• From now until the end of the year, focus shifts to crop production and protection underpinned by monitoring – which is not just looking for pests or disease but assessing biotic and abiotic orchard factors. • Thoroughly clean shed equipment at the end of harvest and remove any residual nuts that may attract vermin and harbour pests such as kernel grub. • Audit your chemical store and ensure you and all staff have current chemical application certification – additional licenses are required in NSW if you are contracting spray services, even for a neighbour. • Prepare for crop protection activities ensuring correct sprayer/tractor calibration as well as nozzle/cannon selections – conduct coverage and tractor speed tests • If you are planning canopy management, do you know what you will do with prunings? • Now may be your last chance to order organic inputs for application post-harvest. • A post-harvest schedule will help you prioritise orchard operations and booking contractors as you finish this season and prepare for the next. • Professional beekeepers will be looking to place hives on orchards – ensure hives have not been moved from or within a biosecurity zone (currently all of NSW).

MacAlert - May 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Have you applied for disaster relief if eligible? • Following the wet season conduct a survey of your orchard for long term impacts including Phytophthora. • There are a number of ways to plan crop inputs for the season ahead. • Returning husk back to the orchard is one of the most cost effective ways to replace many nutrients. • Do you know the details of the organic matter you are purchasing? Compost, mulch, manure, soil conditioners, etc? • Continue to audit harvest efficiency and make adjustments as require, especially for machinery in wet conditions. • With more humid conditions and nuts at higher field moisture, it is vital to manage nuts post-harvest. • Have you finalised your plan for post-harvest management?

MacAlert - June 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key topics this month include: • Disaster relief grant applications have been extended in QLD • Factoring in weather conditions for your pest and disease management plans • Nutrition plans need to remain flexible, consider crop load and weather events - discuss soil/leaf sampling results with your consultant to plan nutrition adjustments prior to flowering • Harvesting in wet conditions – key considerations and adaptations including processor sampling for quality of nut that has been lying on the orchard floor • Post-harvest storage – mitigating germination, mould and brown centres with effective airflow and timeous operations • Check now that you and your staff have valid chemical application certification • Book your pest consultant for July to monitor for lace bug, flower caterpillar and flower diseases

MacAlert - February 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Following rain, late season monitoring may be required. • Botryosphaeria is part of a group of fungi causing increasing damage in many tree species, including macadamia. • With prolonged summer rain and/or a heavy crop, you may need to adjust your nutrition program. • Pre-harvest clean-up ensures minimal old nut, sticks and debris remain on the orchard floor and dramatically improves harvest efficiency. • Conduct pre-season audits for you processor in advance, allowing time for any corrections before harvest. • Monitor for maturity. Husk colour is an on-farm indication of maturity but your processor will perform an accurate assessment. • With harvest around the corner, ensure equipment is in good order. Preventative maintenance is the key to reducing breakdowns during the season.

MacAlert - April 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

Key messages this month include: • Disaster grants and loans are available – do not rule out your eligibility; ensure you have plenty of photographic evidence. • If you conduct soil and leaf tests during Autumn, book or organise these now to assist in determining organic amendments to be applied following harvest. • Monitoring and managing vertebrate pests such as cockatoos, rats and pigs are essential during nut drop. • Consider orchard access and machinery performance in relation to weather conditions. • Six ways to prevent quality (and money) loss with simple ventilation of harvested nuts proving effective. • Conducting harvest efficiency audits and analysis of on farm crop loss may prove invaluable to your farm management. • As harvest continues and the weather cools, start thinking about frost mitigation if relevant to your region and begin planning your canopy management strategy.

MacAlert - March 2022

2022 | Australian Macadamia Society | Manual/guide

• Recovering from heavy rain and flooding – short and long term response. • Assess Phytophthora root rot and trunk canker over the next few months following wet weather. • Continue with a consistent nutrition program, which may need to be increased due to the wet weather. • Orchard floor preparation, cleaning and checking for any contaminants are essential for food safety. • Safety audits are a possibility WH&S QLD have informed the AMS that they intend to audit macadamia operations. • There are major benefits to completing a crop loss assessment. • Consider ways to reduce your harvest period and set up the orchard for the following season.

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